Java EE 7 教程 第一部分 简介 第1章 概述 第1.7节 开发角色

原文:http://docs.oracle.com/javaee/7/tutorial/doc/overview007.htm
翻译:石卓林 shizhuolin@hotmail.com

1.7 Development Roles

Reusable modules make it possible to divide the application development and deployment process into distinct roles so that different people or companies can perform different parts of the process.

The first two roles, Java EE product provider and tool provider, involve purchasing and installing the Java EE product and tools. After software is purchased and installed, Java EE components can be developed by application component providers, assembled by application assemblers, and deployed by application deployers. In a large organization, each of these roles might be executed by different individuals or teams. This division of labor works because each of the earlier roles outputs a portable file that is the input for a subsequent role. For example, in the application component development phase, an enterprise bean software developer delivers EJB JAR files. In the application assembly role, another developer may combine these EJB JAR files into a Java EE application and save it in an EAR file. In the application deployment role, a system administrator at the customer site uses the EAR file to install the Java EE application into a Java EE server.

The different roles are not always executed by different people. If you work for a small company, for example, or if you are prototyping a sample application, you might perform tasks in every phase.

1.7 开发角色

可重复使用的模块制作尽可能划分为不同的应用开发和部署过程以分配给不同的角色,让不同的人或公司可以执行其过程的不同部分.

前两个角色, Java EE产品提供商和工具提供商,涉及购买和安装Java EE产品与工具, 在购买并安装软件后,Java EE组件可以由应用组件开发人员开发, 由应用装配人员打包, 由应用部署人员部署. 在大型组织中.每个角色可以由不同的个人或团队来执行.在分工工作中,因为每个角色前面的输出文件是后续作用的输入. 例如,在应用组件的开发阶段,企业Bean软件开发人员提供EJB JAR文件.在应用打包过程中,另一个开发人员可以将这些EJB JAR文件包含到Java EE应用程序中并将其保存为一个EAR文件。在应用部署时,系统管理员在客户现场把EAR文件格式的Java EE应用程序安装到Java EE服务器.

不同的角色并不总是由不同的人执行.如果你工作在一家小公司,例如,或者如果你是编写一个示例应用程序,您可能会执行每一个阶段任务.

1.7.1 Java EE Product Provider

The Java EE product provider is the company that designs and makes available for purchase the Java EE platform APIs and other features defined in the Java EE specification. Product providers are typically application server vendors that implement the Java EE platform according to the Java EE 7 Platform specification.

1.7.1 Java EE 产品提供商

Java EE产品提供商是设计和实现Java EE 平台API和Java EE规范定义功能的公司.产品供应商通常是根据Java EE平台规范实现Java EE平台应用服务器的供应商.

1.7.2 Tool Provider

The tool provider is the company or person who creates development, assembly, and packaging tools used by component providers, assemblers, and deployers.

1.7.2 工具提供商

工具提供商是为组件提供商,集成商和部署人员提供开发,集成和打包工具的个人或公司.

1.7.3 Application Component Provider

The application component provider is the company or person who creates web components, enterprise beans, applets, or application clients for use in Java EE applications.

1.7.3 应用组件提供商

应用组件提供商是创建应用于Java EE应用程序的web组件,企业beans,小程序或企业客户端的公司或个人.

1.7.3.1 Enterprise Bean Developer

An enterprise bean developer performs the following tasks to deliver an EJB JAR file that contains one or more enterprise beans:

  • Writes and compiles the source code
  • Specifies the deployment descriptor (optional)
  • Packages the .class files and deployment descriptor into the EJB JAR file

1.7.3.1 企业bean开发人员

一个企业bean开发人员执行以下任务以交付一个EJB JAR文件, 其内含有一个或多个企业beans:

  • 编写并编译源码
  • 指定部署描述符(可选)
  • 打包.class文件和部署描述符到EJB JAR文件中

1.7.3.2 Web Component Developer

A web component developer performs the following tasks to deliver a WAR file containing one or more web components:

  • Writes and compiles servlet source code
  • Writes JavaServer Faces, JSP, and HTML files
  • Specifies the deployment descriptor (optional)
  • Packages the .class, .jsp, and.html files and deployment descriptor into the WAR file

1.7.3.2 Web组件开发人员

web组件开发人员执行以下任务以交付WAR文件,其内包含一个或多个web组件:

  • 编写并编译servlet源码
  • 编写JavaServer Faces,JSP和HTML文件
  • 指定部署描述符(可选)
  • 打包.class, .jsp,.html文件和部署描述符到WAR文件中

1.7.3.3 Application Client Developer

An application client developer performs the following tasks to deliver a JAR file containing the application client:

  • Writes and compiles the source code
  • Specifies the deployment descriptor for the client (optional)
  • Packages the .class files and deployment descriptor into the JAR file

1.7.3.3 应用客户端开发人员

一个企业客户端开发人员执行以下任务以交付内含应用客户端的JAR文件:

  • 编写并编译源码
  • 指定客户端部署描述符(可选)
  • 打包.class文件和部署描述符到JAR文件中

1.7.4 Application Assembler

The application assembler is the company or person who receives application modules from component providers and may assemble them into a Java EE application EAR file. The assembler or deployer can edit the deployment descriptor directly or can use tools that correctly add XML tags according to interactive selections.

A software developer performs the following tasks to deliver an EAR file containing the Java EE application:

  • Assembles EJB JAR and WAR files created in the previous phases into a Java EE application (EAR) file
  • Specifies the deployment descriptor for the Java EE application (optional)
  • Verifies that the contents of the EAR file are well formed and comply with the Java EE specification

1.7.4 应用集成人员

应用集成人员是接受来自组件提供者的可装配应用模块并将其放入Java EE应用EAR文件中公司或个人. 装配人员或部署人员可以直接编辑部署描述符或使用工具根据交互选项添加正确的XML标记.

一个软件开发人员执行以下任务以交付一个包含Java EE应用的EAR文件:

  • 集成已完成的EJB,JAR和WAR文件到Java EE应用(EAR文件)中
  • 为Java EE应用制订部署描述符(可选)
  • 核实EAR文件的内容和检验其是否符合Java EE规范

1.7.5 Application Deployer and Administrator

The application deployer and administrator is the company or person who configures and deploys application clients, web applications, Enterprise JavaBeans components, and Java EE applications, administers the computing and networking infrastructure where Java EE components and applications run, and oversees the runtime environment. Duties include setting transaction controls and security attributes and specifying connections to databases.

During configuration, the deployer follows instructions supplied by the application component provider to resolve external dependencies, specify security settings, and assign transaction attributes. During installation, the deployer moves the application components to the server and generates the container-specific classes and interfaces.

A deployer or system administrator performs the following tasks to install and configure a Java EE application or components:

  • Configures the Java EE application or components for the operational environment
  • Verifies that the contents of the EAR, JAR, and/or WAR filesare well formed and comply with the Java EE specification
  • Deploys (installs) the Java EE application or components into the Java EE server

应用部署人员和管理人员

应用部署人员和管理人员是配置和部署应用客户端,web应用程序,企业JavaBeans组件和Java EE应用程序的公司或个人,管理Java EE组件或应用程序运行时的计算机操作和基础网络设施.监管运行环境, 其职责包含设置事务控制,安全属性和连接到指定数据库.

在配置过程中.部署人员遵照应用组件提供商提供的说明解决外部依赖,指定安全设置和确定事务属性. 在安装过程中, 部署人员移动应用组件到服务器并且生成特定容器类和接口.

部署人员和系统管理人员执行以下任务以安装配置Java EE应用和组件:

  • 在运行环境中配置Java EE应用或组件
  • 核实EAR,JAR或WAR文件的内容是否正常和符合Java EE规范
  • 在Java EE服务器中部署(安装)Java EE应用或组件

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